Sleep Disorders Glossary - P And Q
Paradoxical therapy is an effectual therapeutic method to conquering insomnia that asks the insomniac to do the exact opposite of trying to fall asleep.
Parasomnia is a broad term used to describe various uncommon disruptive sleep-related disorders. Parasomnias are disruptive sleep-related disorders that can occur during arousals from REM sleep or partial arousals from Non-REM sleep.
Parasomnias are intense, infrequent physical acts that occur during sleep. Some common parasomnias include REM behavior disorder(RBD), sleepwalking, sleep talking, night terrors, nightmares, confusion arousals, teeth grinding, rhythmic movement disorders, sleep paralysis
Pathological Sleep is an unusual sleep patterns.
Pavor nocturnus, also known as sleep terror or night terrors, is a parasomnia sleep disorder characterized by extreme terror and a temporary inability to regain full consciousness. Night terrors happen during deep sleep.
Perceptual Disengagement refers to change in consciousness at the onset of sleep when environmental stimuli are no longer apparent, and there is no longer any conscious, meaningful interface with the environment.
Periodic Breathing is characterized by recurring short apneic pauses, which is common in premature infants.
Periodic Limb Movement Disorder [PLMD]
Periodic limb movement disorder affects people only during sleep. Periodic Limb Movement Disorder (PLMD), formerly known as nocturnal myoclonus, is a condition in which a person's legs or arms twitch or move involuntarily and periodically during sleep.
The condition is characterized by behavior ranging from shallow, continual movement of the ankle or toes, to wild and strenuous kicking and flailing of the legs and arms.
Periodic Limb Movement Index
Periodic limb movement index is the record of the number of leg or arm movements during each hour of sleep measured by sensors placed on the legs and arms. If this index is greater than or equal to five, i.e., leg movements occurred at least five times an hour, then the diagnosis of Periodic limb movement disorders is made
PLMD-Arousal Index is number of sleep-related periodic leg movements per hour of sleep that are associated with an EEG arousal.
Persistent Insomnia is the long-lasting insomnia that reacts poorly to treatment.
Pharynx is the section of the alimentary canal that extends from the mouth and nasal cavities to the larynx, where it becomes continuous with the esophagus .
Phasic (Event/Activity) is the brain, muscle, or autonomic related event of a brief and episodic nature occurring in sleep. Usually occur during REM sleep, such as eye movements and/or muscle twitches.
Phase advance is a shifting prior in time, for example if somebody starts going to bed earlier and waking up earlier.
Phase delay is a shifting later in time, for example if one's sleep cycle moves ahead on the clock.
Photoperiod is the duration of an organism's daily exposure to light, considered especially with regard to the effect of the exposure on growth and development .
Photoreceptor is nerve ending, cell, or group of cells specialized to sense or receive light.
Pickwickian Syndrome is a distinctive form of obstructive sleep apnea associated with being overweight, having a large neck, fat buildup around the soft tissues of the neck, and loss of muscle tone with aging
It is the combination of severe obesity, suffering from obstructive sleep apnea causing hypoxia and hypercapnia resulting in marked daytime somnolence . It is also known as Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome.
Pineal Gland is a small, cone-shaped organ in the brain of most vertebrates that secretes the hormone melatonin. Also called epiphysis, pineal body; Also called pineal organ .
In reference to sleep, polycyclic is multiple sleep periods and wake periods in a 24-hour day.
Polyp is usually nonmalignant growth or tumor protruding from the mucous lining of an organ such as the nose, bladder, or intestine, often causing obstruction.
Polysomnogram (PSG) is a test used to diagnose sleep apnea. During the polysomnogram test, a variety of body functions, such as the electrical activity of the brain, eye movements, muscle activity, heart rate, respiratory effort, air flow, and blood oxygen levels are recorded at night during sleep.
Polysomnography is the simultaneous and continuous monitoring of normal and abnormal physiological activity during sleep
Polysomnograph is the biomedical instrument for the measurement of multiple physiological variables of sleep.
Polysomnographic technologist is a health care professional, who is trained to performing diagnostic sleep studies.
Pons A band of nerve fibers on the ventral surface of the brain stem that links the medulla oblongata and the cerebellum with upper portions of the brain. It is the brainstem region critical for initiating REM sleep. Also called pons Varolii.
Post-Prandial Dip / Post-Prandial Drowsiness
Postprandial dip is a slight drowsiness or sleepiness caused by a natural drop in body temperature. This occurs mainly in early afternoon and after a meal.
Post-traumatic hypersomnia may arise from a head injury or a traumatic incident involving the central nervous system. It is usually associated with related symptoms such as headaches, fatigue, memory impairment, as well as difficulty concentrating.
Usually experienced immediately after the accident, some cases are delayed for more than a year. Duration of symptoms may last only a short time, can continue for months or years, or can remain indefinitely.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is a psychological disorder affecting individuals who have experienced or witnessed profoundly traumatic events, such as torture, murder, rape, or wartime combat, characterized by recurrent flashbacks of the traumatic event, nightmares, irritability, anxiety, fatigue, forgetfulness, and social withdrawal .
Premature Morning Awakening
Premature Morning Awakening is the early termination of the major sleep period with incapability to go back to sleep.
Prescribed CPAP Pressure
Prescribed CPAP Pressure is the pressure(s) or settings that are determined by a CPAP titration sleep study, which a physician sets down for a patient's CPAP therapy machine.
Primary snoring is the type of snoring, which is not associated with apnea.
Process C is the natural behavior and propensity, regulated by human circadian rhythms, to sleep during the "sleepy phase" of the body, generally between 11:00 p.m. and 7:00 a.m.
Process S is also known as the homeostatic process, it is the character of a normal person who is sleep-deprived to become sleepy when awake, and sleep deeper and longer when sleep is attained.
Prodromal Symptom is an sign of an approaching disease state.
Pupillometryis the measurement of the pupil of the eye and activity as related to alertness or sleepiness. This test is used more for research rather than a diagnostic assessment.
Quiet Sleep is the term commonly used instead of NREM sleep to describe the sleep of infants .